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传统的抗菌剂是通过药效成分的溶出释放而阻止

文章出处:西安除甲醛 人气:发表时间:2021-01-15

一、环境问题简述


jinnianlai,daqiwuran、shuiwuran、bingduganran、shineiwuranzongdengduihuanjingdewuranwentizaiquanqiufanweineikuozhan、chengweiweixierenleishengcundeyanzhongdewenti。youyulajifenshaochangpaifangchudeereying、chuandifangwutuliaosuoshiyongdeyoujixi、diditi(ddt)yijiliuliuliu(bhc)dengnongyao、zaozhichangpaifangdefeishui、jianzhucailiaozhongshiyongderongji、zhanzheji、feiqipaifangzhongdebenbingbidenggezhonggeyangdehuaxuewuzhiraoluanrendeneifenmi,eryinqiguominzhengyijiguominxingpiyanhehuaxuewuzhiguominzhengdengjibing,zheixiewuranchuliqilaifeichangkunnan。sarsheqinliugandailairenleishangwang、judajingjisunshi,renleihaimeiyouzhaodaoyizhongzuihaodebanfaduifutuyuqilaidexinbingduxijirenleidebanfa。


对环境污染物的传统处理方法不外乎收集、浓缩和焚烧处理,如果用同样的方法来处理,由于污染范围极广,必须对大量的水、大气和土壤进行处理。从而消耗大量能源和放出大量的二氧化碳气体,更严重的是伴随焚烧处理还可能产生二恶英等剧毒物质。因而如果用传统方法来处理环境污染物时,人类将面临能源危机、地球温暖化和更进一步污染环境的危险,因此,必须寻求新的、行之有效的环境净化技术。


youyuguangchumeibuxiaohaodiqiunengyuan、bushiyongyouhaidehuaxueyaopin,erjinjinliyongtaiyangguangdeguangnengdengjiukejianghuanjingwuranwuzaidinongdudezhuangtaixiaqingchujinghua,bingqiehaikezuoweikangjunji、fangmeijiyingyong,yinerchengweihuanjingjinghuajishuzhongdeyigeliangdian。renmenchangshuo,21shijishihuanjingdeshiji,jiangshihuanjingbaohudeshiji,guangchumeijishuzuoweiduihuanjingyouhaodehuanjingjinghuajishudeyanjiukaifayijingfazhanqilai,zaishijiezhongderenhedifangzhiyaoyouguangjiukeshiyongguangchumeijishu,yinci,keyiyuqiguangchumeijishujiangzaijinhouyougengdadefazhan。


er、guangchumeidetedian

guangchumeishizhiketongguoxishouguangerchuyugenggaodenengliangzhuangtai,bingjiangnengliangchuandijifanyingwuershiqifashenghuaxuefanyingdeyileiwuzhi。bandaotihejinshuhuahewudengshichangyongdeguangchumeicailiao、qizhongzuichangjiandeshieryanghuatai。eryanghuataiguangfanyongzuoranliao、yafen、shipintianjiajideng,shiyizhonganquanwudu、jialiannaiyongdewuzhi,namieryanghuataitongguomeiguorenzhengduirentiwuhai,yongyukouhonghefangshaishuangzhong。guangchumeizaiguangzhaojiehekongqizhongdeshuizhengqizaibiaomianhuichanshengdaliangqingyanggenziyouji,tabixiaodushajunjibeiguangfanshiyongdecilvsuan、shuangyangshuihechouyangdengjuyougengqiangdeyanghuanengli,keyifenjieyoujiwu,shajunjihefangmei。eryanghuataijuyouzaiguangdezhaoshexianengfenjiehewuhaihuachulijihusuoyouyouhaiyoujiwu,buyongyoududeyaopinhuomei、shiyoudenghuashiranliao,jinliyongganjingqiequzhibujindetaiyangnengjiunengjiangkuosanledehuanjingwuranwuanquanyouxiaodichulibingqiekebanyongjiuhuaxunhuanshiyongdengzhongduodeyoudian。


san、guangchumeikaifadezuji

guangchumeifanyingdeyanjiushiyushanggeshiji50niandai,dangshishiweilejiejueyouyuwujihuahewudaozhideguangfenjiefanying,zaitianjiaeryanghuataidetuliaorongyilaohuazheiyigulaodewentierzhankaide。zhidao70niandaimocaikaishijijiliyongguangchumeifanyinglaichuliyouhaihuaxuewuyijijinxinghuanjingjinghuadengfangmiandeyanjiu,zaiwoguo90niandaichuyekaishizaizheiyifangmianjinxingyanjiu,bingbaogaoleshiyongguangchumeiduihanlvyoujiwu、nongyao、ereyingdengjiangjin100duozhongwuzhijinxingfenjiehewuhaihuachulidemiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaijieguo。90niandaizhongqi,deguochenggongkaifalemozhuangeryanghuataiguangchumeishiguangchumeilijijinruleshiyonghuajieduan。tongshi,deguozaieryanghuataiguangchumeizaidaqijinghuayanjiushangdeyingyongqudelejinzhan,shiyongeryanghuataiguangchumeizaizijinghuafangmiandeyingyonghechanyehuashangqudelejinzhan。jinjinianlaikexuejishufazhan,guangchumeiyanjiuyededaolexiangdangxunsudefazhan,kexuejiajiangeryanghuataiyonggaokejishoufazhizaochengnamijibie,gengjiatigaoleeryanghuataideguangcuihuaxingneng,liyongjinshuchanzajiqitadefangfashidenamijieryanghuataizaiputongguangzhaoxiayouguangcuihuahuoxing,chenggongyanzhilekangjuntaoci、kangjundiban、waiqiangfanglaohuatuliaodengguangchumeicailiao。woguozaizheiyifangmianyanjiujishuyuguowaixiangdang,chanyehuafangmianluohouyuoumeidengfadaguojia,jinjinianlaiguojiaduiguangcuihuayanjiutourudaliangrenliwuli,zaikejianguangguangchumeiyuancailiaofangmianyeyouguimoshengchannengli。


si、riyikuodadeguangchumeishichang

guangchumeiyongguangzhaosheshichanshengbichouyanghaiqiangdeyanghuanengli,jihunengshamiewutibiaomiansuoyoudexijunhebingdu,bingnengfenjiexijunsihouliuxiadeneidusu,zuizhongjiangxijunhebingdufenjiechengeryanghuatanheshui。keyihenhaodechulirenleibingdudexianghujiaochaganran。tanenggoujiangsuoyoudeyouhaiyoujiwufenjiechengshuiheeryanghuatandengwuduwuchoudewuzhi。zhiyaozaiguangzhaoshexia,guangchumeijiunengyinqiyouhaiwuzhifenjiedenghuaxuefanyingdefasheng,qizuoweiyizhongduihuanjingyouhaobingnengyurenzhangqigongcundehuanjingjinghuacailiaoerxunsuyinqishirendezhumu。

jinnianlai,liyongzheileiguangchumeiyuanlidexiangguanshangpinshichangzhengzaijisuchengzhang。guangchumeitaoci、guangchumeishabu、guangchumeishouji、guangchumeidengguan、guangchumeikongqijinghuaqidengyongyouyouliangxingnengdeguangchumeichanpinriyishoudaoxiaofeizhexiai,guangchumeichanpinshichangguimoyinggaigengjiakuodahua,jianghuichengweishichangdechaoliu。


wu、guangchumeideyingyonghechanyehuajincheng

guangchumeideyingyongfanweibaokuokangjun、fangmei、kongqijinghua(chuchou、paiqijinghua)、zijinghua、fangwu、daqijinghua、shuichulidengguangfandelingyu、suizheyanjiukaifadejinzhan,yikaifachudaliangshiyongchanpin。guangchumeijuyoukangjunchuchoudengduozhongyongtuerzuishiheyuhuliyongpin,zheijiangbansuirenkoulaolinghuaerchengzhangweijudadechanye。


1、kangjunfangmei

eryanghuataizaiguangzhaoshexia,chanshengqingyanggenziyoujidenghuoxingyangbichangyongzuoxiaodushajundelvqi、cilvsuan、shuangyangshuihechouyangdengjuyougengqiangdeyanghuanengli,fahuikangjunzuoyongershixijunhuomeijundefanzhizhongzhi。zheileieryanghuataiguangchumeidekangjunjiyuchuantongdekangjunjibutong、tamenjuyouruxiatezheng:


(1)eryanghuataizaimeiyouguangzhaoshimeiyoukangjunhuoxing。chuantongdekangjunjishitongguoyaoxiaochengfenderongchushifangerzuzhixijundefayuhuoshamiexijun。yongcongcanjuqianrongchumiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaitongyangdefangfaceshibiaoming:eryanghuataiwanquanburongchu。ereryanghuataiguangchumei,zaiguangzhaodechuqijiuchanshengkangjunzuoyong。youyuzaiguangzhaoxiachanshengdeqingyanggenziyoujidenghuoxingyangshouminghenduan,ruguoxijunbuzaieryanghuataidejinchujiubunengfahuikangjunxiaoguo。yinci,jiangeryanghuataimairuzaitihuojiaozhanjibiaomian。miaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaizhengmingjiangguangchumeituyutaocibiaomianhouzaijinxingshaojie,tadekangjunxiaoguoxiangdanghao。


(3)youyueryanghuataizuoweicuihuaji(guangchumei)zuoyongshizishenbufashengbianhua,yuanlishang,keyibanyongjiudishiyong、ruguoyouguangzhaoshe,tajiunengbanyongjiudichixuyouxiao。


(4)eryanghuataiguangzhaoshexia,chanshengdeqingyanggenziyoujijihunengshisuoyouyoujiwufenjiebianchengeryanghuatandengwududewuzhi。yinci,bujinnengkangjunfangmei、shizuoweixijunhuomeijundeshierdeyoujiwufenjie,yeshixijunhuomeijunshifangchudedusufenjie。erqie,hainengpohuaiaixibao、keshirongrudegezhongyouhaihuaxuewuzhijixiangkongqizhongdeechouhuaxuewuzhifenjiejiwuhaihuadeng。


zaituyoueryanghuataiguangchumeicengdebolibanshangyongriguangdengzhaoshexiadekangdachangganjun、huangseputaojundekangjunxiaoguojunkeda99%yishang。namijieryanghuataizaiweiruodeguangzhaoxiajiunenggouyouhenqiangdeshajunnengli,guangchumeikangjuntaocizaishenghuozhongshiyongbulingjiaguangzhaoyiyangyouchaoqiangdeshajunnengli。


zongshangsuoshu,eryanghuataiguangchumeizuoweixinxingdekangjunjilingrenzhumu、gezhongyingyongdekaifayejinzhanlianghao。guangchumeikangjuncizhuanyijingzaishichangxiaoshou,zaiweishengtaoqi、caidao、anban、jianzhucailiao、24xiaoshiyushiyijiyiliaoyongxianweidengfangmianshangdeyingyongkaifajinzhanshunli。erqie,guangchumeizaifangzaozuoyongyeyidedaoqueren,nengyizhizaoheshuiqingtaideshuicao、nengfangzhishuibianzhihehuazhangqibaoxiandehuapingyijingmianshixiaoshou、zaihunningtu、tuliaoshangdeyingyongyanjiuyeyikaishi。


2、kongqijinghua(chuchou、qitipaifangjinghuaheshineiwuranzonghezhengduicedeng)

guangchumeizaiguangzhaoxiayenenggoufenjiekongqizhongdejiaquan、ben、erjiabendengyouhaiwuzhi,bingnengjiangqiwanquanfenjiechengeryanghuatanheshui,yuchuantongdechuweijibutong,zhinengjiangyizhongyouhaiwubianchenglingyizhongwuweierdeyouhaiwuzhi,guangchumeicaishiyizhongnengchedifenjieyouhaiwuzhidehuanbaocailiao。

zhiyaojiangguangchumeijunyundepentuyushineiqiangmianshang,liyongyangguanghuodengguangjiunenggouyuanyuanbuduandefenjieyouhaiwuzhi,dadajiangdiwuranwuduirentideweihai。zairibentongchangjiatingzaizhuangxiuwanchenghoujiuhuipentushangyicengguangchumeiye,chengleyizhongchangyongdekongqijinghuatuliao,zaiwoguorenmendeyishihaimeiyoudadaozheiyibu,xiangxinbujiudejianglaiguangchumeiyehuizoujinwoguobaixingdejiating。


3、zijinghuayufangwu

yongguangchumeikeyifenjiewuwu,juci,kezhibeizijinghuacailiao。youqishiduiyuyidiandianzengjiadeyouwuhuoxiangyanjiaoyoudexiaoguozuida。liyongzheixiecailiao,keshengchanchuyingyongyujianzhucailiao、waiqiang、chuangbolidenggezhonggeyangdechanpin,tuijinzijinghuajishudefazhan。tuliao、bomoji、guangchumeipiancaidengyijingkaishixiaoshou。ciwai,jiangguangchumeituzaiyachibiaomian,yuguangzhaosheshi,jiangshifuzhezaiyachishangdewuwufenjie、bianbai,zheixianggongnengyiyingyongyuyakemeirong。

yibanlaishuo,eryanghuataiyushuidejiechujiaoweilingduerjuyouchaoqinshuixing、wuwudengfuzheshibiaomianbianchengshushuixingxingchengshuizhuerwuhua。danruguoyouguangzhaozefashengguangchumeifenjiewuwuershiqihuifuchengyuanlaidechaoqinshuixing,jinershiwuhuatingzhi。liyonggaiyuanlikaifachubuwuhuadejingzi、chuangbolihebomojideng。

zaimeirongfangmian,guangchumeikeyingyongyuyakemeirongshiyabianbai。duiyujiaya,yeyikaifachujiayaxijingji。zaijiayazhongjiaruhanguangchumeiderongye,dangyangguangdengguangyuanzhaosheshi,jiayashangfuzhedewuwubeifenjieerbiandeganjing、tongshiyekequchujiayadeechou。


4、daqijinghua

zaimeiguoguoqu20nianzhong,zhuyaoyouyuqicheweiqizhongdedanyanghuawu(nox)、liuyanghuawu(sox)suozaochengdedaqiwuranwentiyizhimeiyoudedaogaishan,yiyinqishuqigonghaisusongerchengweiyanzhongdewenti。ruguoyingyongeryanghuataiguangchumei,zenengshidaqiwuranyuandeyiyanghuadan(no)、eryanghuadan(no2)dengdanyanghuawu(nox)huoliuyanghuawu(sox)yanghuachengxiaosuangenlizi(no3-)huoliusuangenlizi(so42-)。jiangguangchumeitushuayujianzhuwudewaiqiangshi,jiukeliyongtaiyangguangjiangdanyanghuawuhuoliuyanghuawufenbieyanghuachengxiaosuangenlizihuoliusuangenlizi,xiayushikejiangxiaosuangenlizihuoliusuangenlizichongshuaxialai,jiuzheiyangkechixubuduandijinxingguangchumeifanying,congerchuqudaqizhongdedanyanghuawuhuoliuyanghuawu。xianyiyanjiubiaomingchongshuaxiaosuangenlizihuoliusuangenliziyushuidesuanxingkeyibeikongqizhongfuyoudejianxingfenchensuozhonghe。muqian,hanguangchumeidedaqijinghuachanpin,birudaolujianshezhongdedaqijinghuabujian、tuliao、piancai、shuiniyijidaolulumiandengyibeikaifatuiguang。fuzheyouguangchumeidexiyinbancaihegaosudaoludefangyinbidengshangpinyezaikaifazhizhong。


5、shuichuli

muqian,yongdezuiduodeshuichulifangfashicaiyonghuoxingwunidengdeweishengwuchulifa,gaifaduiyuhanlvyoujiwudechulihaihenkunnan,chanshengdeshengyuwuniyechengweihuanjingwenti。zhijin,shengyuwunizhuyaocaiyongfenshaochulihemaitianchuli,danfenshaochulihoudecanhuiyouchengweixindewenti,maitianchuliyebunengwuxiandizhanyongtudiziyuan。guangchumeiyongyushuichulideyanjiuhenzaojiukaishibingyizhizaichixu。kaishidemiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaishijiangguangchumeidefenmofensanhanyouhaiwudeshuizhongyongguangzhaoshelaichulishuizhongdeyouhaiwu,danshi,youyuzheizhongfangfazhinengyicixingchulierwufalianxuchuli,chuliganjingdeshuiyuguangchumeidefenliyekunnaneryizhidebudaoshiyonghua。suizhejinyoueryanghuataichengmodeguangchumeidekaifachenggongcaizhenzhengyingyongyushuichuli。


muqian,yushuichulixiangguandeguangchumeichanpinyouboliqiju、nengyizhizaoleiheqingtaifanzhideshuicao、shishuibuyibianzhicongershihuaqiyanzhangdehuapingdeng。ciwai,liyongguangchumeidezhouyeyushiyeyishangpinhua,jingshuiqi、feishuichulizhuangzhi、yinliaoshuidejinghua、shajunzhuangzhi、chaochunshuizhizaozhuangzhi、ransefeishuidetuosexitong、jianyijingshuiqi、yushuijinghuazhuangzhi、handiandufeiyeqinghuahewudefenjiezhuangzhi、beihuanjingjisudengsuowuranjianghedejinghuaxitongyijishengchufangdeniaochulixitongdengdouzaikaifajinxingzhong。haiyoujiangdixiashuizhongdeyoujirongjizhengfachengqitihoujinyibuyongguangchumeifenjiedezhuangzhiyeyiyouxiaoshou。


lingwaimuqian,ruhechulifeiqiwusheshidefenshaoludefeiqizhongdeereyingyichengweiyanzhongdewenti,zaozhigongyefeishuizhonghanereyinghuolajifenshaochangdefeiqixijingshui(qingxishui)hanereyingdechuliyejiangshiqianzaidewenti。tebieshizuijinyicongyixiejiangheshuizhongjianchuyanzhongchaobiaodeereying,weici,yingyongguangchumeifenjieereyingshuichulizhuangzhidengyezaikaifazhizhong。


6、baoxian

zhongsuozhouzhi,zaibaocunshuiguoheliangshishi,ruguoqizhongshaoliangfashengbianzhi,zeqitadebufenjianghenkuaibianzhi。zheishiyouyuyibianzhidebufenhuishifangchunengcujinshuiguoheshucaidengchengshulaohuadeyiguiqiti,cujinqitabufenchengshu、laohuaerjiasufubai。ruguoshiyongguangchumei,nengjiangyiguiqitifenjieweieryanghuatanheshui,shishuiguoheliangshinengzhangshijianbaocun,tigaoshangpindeshichangjiage。zaicaomeixiangzilifangruguangchumeipianshicaomeibaoxianhuozaishipincangkudengdifangshiyongshishuiguoheliangshikeyizhangqibaoxiandezhuangzhiyeyishangpinhua。shiyongguangchumeibujinnengfenjieyiguiqiti,tongshihainengfangzhicangkuneixijunhemeidengdefanzhiyijichuchoudeng,shichanpinpinzhiwendingdetongshihainengshuhuanzuoyehuanjing,bingshigezhongnongzuowudechanhuncunfangchengweikeneng。tongshihaikeyongyuzhongmiao、genjingqiudebaocun,fangzhibocai、dasuandengdebianhuang。liyongguangchumeidezheizhongxiaoguo,fangzhishipinfulan、yizhilajidepaifang,congjiejueliangshiwentihefeiqiwuwentideguandianlaikanyelingrenzhumu。yongguangchumeicailiaozhizaodebaozhuangmojikeyiqidaozhangjiubaoxianerqiebaozhuangmozaiziranjiezhonglianggeyuejiuhuijiangjie,bichuantongdejiangjiecailiaochengbendideduo。


zongshangsuoshu,keyongguangchumeichulideyouhaiwuzhishubushengshu,takeyianquanguangfandiyingyongzaihuanjingbaohudegegefangmian、shi21shijizuiyouxiwangdejishuzhiyi、muqian,gezhonggeyangdechanpinyizaishichangshangchuxian。raner,yicaiyongguangchumeidexiangguanchanpindexingneng,biruzijinghuadexiaoguo,zaishebeigangwanbishikeyirongyikandao, danzaijingguojigeyuehou,gaixiaoguojiubumingxianle。muqianwoguohaimeiyouyigetongyideyouguangchumeixingnengpingjiadeshiyanfangfa,eryoushengchanqiyezixingzhiding,congerwufabijiaoguangchumeidexingneng、youyumeiyouzhiliangbiaozhun,zheiyanzhongzuaileguangchumeishichangdejiankangfazhan,xiwangwoguojinkuaichutaiguangchumeichanpindepingdingbiaozhun。


muqian,guangchumeiyingyongjishudekaifazhengzaiquanlituijinzhong。suizheguangchumeijishuzaishijiegeguodepuji,jiangcujinguangchumeixinyongtudekaifahejinhoujudashichangdechengzhang。suizheguangchumeidekaifahepuji、kuodayingxiang,jiangcujindiqiuhuanjingdegaishan。


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