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宾馆等场所的现场调查情况

文章出处:西安除甲醛 人气:发表时间:2021-01-15

zaijianzhuyededaidongxia,zhuangshicailiaogongyezongtiquxianghao,shengchanhexiaoshouwendingzengzhang,jingjixiaoyichixutigao,buluncongchanpinzongliang,haishijingjixiaoyidengfangmiandoudedaolejudadefazhan,xianyoujianzhuzhuangshixiaofeishuipingbishinianqiantigaole20%。muqian,jianzhuzhuangshifeiyongyijingzhandaogongchengzaojiade30%-40%,jiaogaojidejianzhuzhuangshiyizhandaogongchengzaojiade50%。zhuangshigongchengzaizhixianshangsheng,zongzaojiayicong1990niande80yiyuanfazhandao2002niande3200yiyuan,2003niangengshidadaole7200duoyiyuan,zhanguominshengchanzongzhide7%,tebieshizhuangshicailiaodezongliangyiduonianlianxukuajinshijiedeqianlie,woguoyichengweitouhaozhuangshicailiaodeshengchandaguohexiaofeidaguo。

2002nian1yue1ri,guojiazhiliangjiandujianyanjianyizongjubiaozhunhuaweiyuanhuiqicaoleguanyushineizhuangshicailiaode10xianghuanbaobiaozhun,gaibiaozhuncongbaohurentijiankangchufa,shouciquanmianguidingleshineikongqidewulixing,huaxuexing,shengwuxing,fangshexingsileigong19gezhibiaodexianliangzhi。cibiaozhundechutaiyeweiguoneizhuangshicailiaoxiangzhezhengquedefangxiangfazhantigonglefangxiang,yihouzhuangshicailiaodefazhanjianghuizaijiankanghuanbaodelushangdatabuqianxing。

第一章 国内外装饰材料的发展水平

1.1 国外装饰材料发展现状

meiguoshishijieshangzuiqiangdadeguojia,zaigegefangmiandefazhandouchuyushijiexianjinshuiping,qizaishineizhuangshifangmiandefazhanfangxiangyeyizhiyindaoshijiechaoliu。suoyimiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaizhuyaokankanmeiguodejianzhuzhuangshicailiaodefazhanqingkuang:

美国住宅以舒适、个性、健康、节能为特点,美国人在谈到住宅时.最多的一个词是舒适。美国住宅多为一、两层的木结构独立建筑,目前住宅的自有率为67.9%,居世界榜首。人均居住面积为60M2,96%以上的住宅都装有现代化的设施,热水、暖气、空调设置齐全。美国居民非常重视家居的室内外环境装饰。住宅的装饰设计、施工均具有较高水平。在装饰施工中,材料的选择不但注重发挥传统装饰材料的优点,且高度重视开发和推广采用各种新型建筑装饰材料。现根据了解的情况归纳整理如下:

1.1.1 地面装饰材料

1.1.1.1ditan

huaxianditanshimuqianmeiguojiajudimianzhuangshizhongguangfanshiyongdeyileichanpin,beiyuweibaojianxingpudicailiao,yuezhandimianputiecailiao70%zuoyou。huaxianditanjuyoujuere、baowen、fangchao、fangzaoyin、kangchongzhu、kangjingdian、pinzhongduo、zhuangshihualigaoguidengyixilieyoudian,tayuqidanxingdiancengyiqi。keweirenmentigongshushidejiaogan。buxingqishanghuiganshoudaoteshudewenqing,yinci,shimeiguojiajudimianzhuangshizhongyingyongzuiguang、zuishouhuanyingdeyizhong。meiguochaojishichangchushoudeditanpinzhongfanduo,kemanzubutongdangcihebutongchanghedexuyao。zaijiatingzhuangshizhong,tongchangxuanyong4m kuandekuanfuditanjinxingpushe,jisuoweimanpuditan。zaijiatingzhonghenshaokandaocaiyongkuaizhuangditan。erkuaizhuangditanduoyongyufeijichanghoujiting、bowuguanzhanshiting、shangmaozhongxindenggonggongchangsuodedimianpushe。zaimeiguojiancaishichangshangditandegezhongpeitaocailiaoheshebeiyejiaoqiquan,ruyougezhongpinpaideditanxichenqi、ditanqingxiji。ditanbiaomianzhanshangleyouzi、guozhidengwuwu,zhiyaocongshichangshangmaihuipingzhuangshiqingxiji,penshanghouyongruanbuqingqingyimo。henrongyijiuchuqulewuwu。weifangzhiditanmosun,yanzhangditandeshiyongshouming,shichangshanghaichushoubaohuditantanmiandedebaohumo,tatebieshiyongyuzoulang、loutidengbuwei。meiguojuminzhuzhaiquyibanhuanjingjiaoyoumeihejiejing,jiashangfangzimifengzhilianghao,yinci,shineihenshaozhanshanghuichen,yibanjiatingyixingqicaiyongditanxichenqiqingsaoyici,jiukebaochiditanganjing。

1.1.1.2 suliaodiban

在美国的家居地面装饰中,除化纤地毯外,用得较多的要算是塑料地板了。塑料地板在美国仍然走俏的原因,一是品种多、图案多样,如仿木纹、天然石材可以达到以假乱真的质感,能满足人们崇尚大自然的装饰要求;二是材性好,如耐磨性、耐水性、耐腐蚀性等能满足使用要求;三是脚感舒适,特别是弹性卷材塑料地板,具有一定的柔软性,步行其上脚感舒适,不易疲劳,解决了某些传统建材的冷、硬、灰的缺陷,与木地板相比,隔音易清洁,与陶瓷墙地砖相比,不打滑且冬天没有阴冷的感觉;四是可大规模自动化生产,生产效率高,质量稳定,维修更新较容易;五是质轻施_丁简便,施工速度和传统的建材相比可提高工效几倍到几十倍。塑料地板主要用于厨房、卫生间、洗衣房、贮藏室、走廊、便餐室等地面的铺设。采用的品种以仿木纹、仿瓷砖图案的弹性卷材塑料地板为多见。在家居地面装饰中.很少看到使用块状塑料地板,相反块状塑料地板在飞机场候机室、商业中心的专业超级市场、博物馆等公共建筑的地面应用非常广泛。建材超市上出售的塑料地板品种很多.有不同的规格尺寸和档次,可满足家居装饰的要求。

1.1.1.3 shimudiban、qianghuamudiban

(1) shimudiban

shimudibanjuyouwenliqingxi、naimosun、yingdugao、geyindengyoudian,shizaimeiguodejiajuzhuangshizhong,yehuodejiaoduoyingyongdeyizhongdimianpushecailiao。zhuyaoyongyudimiandeketing、shufang、zoulangdengchudepushe.

(2) qianghuamudiban

qianghuamudibanjuyoumuwenshiganhao、naimo、kangchongji、fangchao、zuran、kangjingdian、fangchongzhu、chicunwending、anzhuangbaoyangfangbiandengyoudian,yeshenshoumeiguojumindehuanying,jinnianlai。qixiaofeiliangzaizhujianzengjia。zhuyaoyongyushoucengdimiandepushe.

1.1.1.4 taociqiangdizhuan

jinnianlai,taociqiangdizhuanzaimeiguojiajuzhuangshizhongdeyongliangzaizhunianzengjia,jiandaodezhuyaoyouchufangheweishengjiandedimian.chufanggongzuotaidetaimian,biludezhoubianheluqiandedimiandengchu,danzaibinguan、fandian、chaojishichang、yishuguan、tushuguan、bowuguan、tiyuguanyijigaosugonglulupangdexiuxishidengweishengjiandedimianqiangmiandengchuyingyongfeichangpubian,jianzhuwaiqiangyongdehenshao。

1.1.1.5dalishi、huagangshidiban

dalishi、huagangshidibanzaijiajuzhuangshizhongjiaoweishaojian,jigebiejiatingyongzuobiluzhouweidezhuangshi、chufangpeicangongzuotaimiandezhuangshi。jujieshao,meiguomalilanzhoudebaerdemoshibeirenmenchengwei“dalishijietizhicheng“,neilixuduofangzidetaijiedoushiyongbaisedalishiqicheng,jibiezhiyoumeiguan。dalishi、huagangshizaijiajuzhuangshizhongyongdebuduodeyuanyin。kenengshichengbentaigui、shigongfansuo、laodongqiangduda、shigongfeiyonggao,jiashanghuagangshi、dalishipushededimianleng、ying、xingzoubushushideng,tebieshimeiguobentuzichandepinzhongbuduo,yaocongyidali、xibanyajinkou,jiagetaigui,yibanjiatingyongbuqi。xiangfan,dalishi、huagangshizaibinguan、fandian、gaojibaihuoshangchang、yishuguan、bowuguandenggonggongjianzhudedimianzhuangshizhong,yingyongjiaoweipubian。

1.1.2 墙面装饰材料

1.1.2.1 tuliao

美国是世界建筑涂料的生产大国,1997年涂料产量为550万t,其中建筑涂料约占50%。建筑队内墙壁涂料是目前美国家居内墙装饰中广泛使用的一种饰面材料,约占内墙装饰材料的60%,居主导地位。这是因为建筑涂料具有以下优点: 一是涂料可配成多种颜色,如乳黄色、乳白快,能满足人们的装饰需要;二是施工简便、工效高、工期短、具有配套的施工工具。一栋面积为200m2的小楼,两人操作,一般4—5h就可完成饰面施工;三是价格低廉,维护更新方便等。美国建材市场上出售的内墙建筑涂料品种繁多,主要类别有乳胶漆、水溶性涂料,溶剂型涂料等,乳胶漆、水溶性涂料等类产品,由于无毒和低毒,对人体和环境污染友好,应用最为广泛。建筑外墙涂料在美国的建筑外墙壁装饰中占有重要地位,据资料介绍,1990年美国建筑物外墙装饰用材中,建筑涂料约占45%,PVC外挂墙板约占30%,金属材料约占10%,砖石材料约占15%。建筑外墙壁涂料在美国住宅建筑中。主要用于传统住宅木质外饰面的涂饰。一般一幢住宅建筑的立面,要用2—3种以上不同颜色进行涂饰,使建筑物显得丰富多彩。

1.1.2.2 bizhi、qiangbu

bizhi、qiangbuyouyujuyouhuasetuanduo(youfangmuwen、guowen、huacao、shiwen、fangzhibudenggegetuan)zhuangshigongnenghao、shigongjiandan、jiageshizhongdengtedian,shimuqianzaimeiguo.rengranweijuminleyicaiyongdeyizhongneiqiangmianzhuangshicailiao。

1.1.3 原因分析、探讨发展趋势

meiguojianzhuzhuangshicailiaojinjinweiraoshichangdeyaoqiu,renminshenghuoshuipingbuduantigaodexuyaoerbuduanfazhande,qifazhanguochengzhongjileilefengfudejingyan,zhidemiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaijiejian。xianjiangmeiguojianzhuzhuangshicailiaodefazhanquxiangguijieruxia:

(1)shiyingrenmenleyu“luyishou”dexiaofeixinli,nulifazhankezijidongshoujinxingjiajuzhuangshidecailiaoheshigonggongju。

zaimeiguo,jianzhuzhuangshiderengongfeishihengaode,yibanyaozhan50%-60%,shenzhigenggao。yinci,yibanjiatingzaijinxingjiajuzhuangshishi,weijieshengzhuangshifeiyong,leyuzijidongshoujinxingjiajuzhuangshi,jidiy (do it yourself) 、meiguozhuangshicailiaoshengchanqiyeweishiyingmeiguoxiandairenyuanyi“luyishou”dexiaofeixinli,hejiancaichaoshi、fangdichankaifagongsidengyouguandanweimiqiepeihe,buduanyanjiuheshengchanleshihediy xuyaodegezhongjianzhuzhuangshicailiao、bupinyijixiangyingshiyongdeshigongjiju,ruxiaotongzhuangdetuliao、banchengpindemenchuang、zuheshiweishengshebeidengdeng,weijuminduiwoshi、dixiashi、chufang、weishengjian、cheku、yangguangshidengbutongbuweidezhuangshitigongcailiaohetuwenbingmaodeshigongfangfazhidao。shengchanqiye、jiancaichaoshidezheizhongzuofa,shenshouyonghuhuanying。

(2)shiyingjienenghegaishanhuanjingxuyao,nulifazhangezhongxinxingjienengzhuangshicailiaohejishu。

meiguoshishijieshangnengyuanxiaofeihewenshiqitipaifangzuiduodeguojia.1996nianmeiguoxiaofeiyicinengyuanzhehebiaomei33 63yidun,zhanshijieyicinengyuanxiaofeide24.89%,yuezhan1/4,1997nian,jutongji,meiguojuzhujishangyejianzhunenghaozhanzongnenghaode33.72%,yuezhan1/3,kejianjuzhuheshangyejianzhuzaimeiguodejianzhunenghaozhongzhanyoushifenzhongyaodiwei。meiguoxianyoufangwu9870dong,yucedao2010nianjiangxinzengfangwu1840wandong,yinci,nenghaojiangsuizhezengjia。

jumeiguo“huashengdunyoubao” baodao,meiguozhengfuweileshishi1998nianribendongjingjingdouqihougongyue,meiguozhengfuyibakuan63yimeiyuan,jiangyong5nianshijianzaiquanguotuixuan“zhufangxianjinjishuhuobanjihua”;tongguoanzhuanggengxianjinjienengjiancai、chuanghuhegeresheshi,caiyonggenghaodejienengzhuangzhihegengjiayouxiaodecainuanhekongdiaoxitongdeng。shimeiguoxinjiandezhuzhaidao2010niandenenghaojiangdi30%。weileshixianzheiyijihua,meiguozhengdaliguligeqiyekaizhangezhongxinxingjienengzhuangshicailiaoxinjishu、xinshebeideyanjiukaifaheshengchangongzuo。

juxi,meiguoketeboligongnengmogongsijinnianyikaifachuyizhongnengzudang99%taiyangziwaixianhe79%taiyangnengdeboligongnengmo,yongzheizhonggongnengmotiezaibolishanghou,nengyouxiaodigaibianboligangcaiguangzhiheqitawulixingneng。kedadajieshengshineizhilengzhirefeiyong,bingkejianshaotaiyangguangzhaosheduishineiwupindepohuaideng。

yourumeiguosuosiweierjishugongsi,jinniantuichuyizhongxinxingjienengboli,shijiangduyoujinshuhuojinshuyanghuawuducengdejuzhibomozhiyuliangkuaibolizhongjianerzhicheng。qizhizuogongyijiandandanxingnengyouyue, ketigaoyuanyoushuangboligerenenglide50%。jianzhuwucaiyongzheizhongboliyouliyudongtianbaonuan,younengpaichitaiyangreliang,kejianshaoxiatiandekongdiaofudan。

(3)shiyingzhuzhaijiansheduicailiaoxingnengdeyuelaiyuegaodeyaoqiu, jijifazhangezhongfuhejianzhuzhuangshicailiaohejishu。

suizhexiandaikexuejishudefazhanyijirenmenshenghuoshuizhundebuduantigao.zhuzhaijiansheduicailiaodeyaoqiujiangyuelaiyuegao。danyicailiaowangwangnanyimanzuyaoqiu。yinci,fuhejishu、fuhecailiaobianyingyunersheng。cailiaodefuhezaimeiguoshoudaogaoduzhongshi.qifazhanheyingyongyeshifenxunsu。zaijiancaichaoshishangjiandaohenduofuhejianzhuzhuangshicailiaohezhipin,rusuliaohemucaifuhediban、qianghuamudiban、lvbopaomosuliaojiaxinbandengdeng。tebiezhidezhichudeshiyoumeiguozhuanweite(dryvit)gongsikaifachenggongdewaiqiangbaowenxitongjishu,shidianxingdefuhejishu。tashiyoujicengqiangti(hunningtuqiang、qiqiang)/zhanjieceng(zhanjieji) /juereceng(eps)/baohuceng(zhanjiejifujiabolixianweiwangge)shimianceng(danxingfangshuizhuangshituliao)zucheng。zheizhongfuhejishuyouyujibaowengere、fangshui、zhuangshiyuyiti,shenshouyonghuhuanying,jinnianlai,huodeleyuelaiyueduodecaiyong。

(4)shiyingzhuzhaijichenghua、zhuangpeihuadefazhan,shifenzhongshichanpindebiaozhunhua、xiliehua、peitaohua、tongyonghuagongzuo。

美国的住宅建设,经几十年的努力,住宅的集成化、装配化、工厂化程度已达到了较高的水平。集成化住宅又叫装配化、工厂化住宅,其部件(如梁、板、柱、厨、卫、窗等部品)可如同工业零件一样,按房屋的设计要求在生产线进行系列化、标准化生产,然后运到现场进行装配化施工。集成化住宅与砖混结构和混凝土结构建筑相比,具有质量轻、抗震性好、施工周期短、增加使用面积,工业化程度高等优点。采用装配化安装施工,摆脱了传统的水、灰、砂、石手工式的粗制劳动和现场湿作业,可大大改善施工中的噪音和粉尘污染,做到文明施工、绿色施工。由于集成化住宅的社会效益和经济效益都非常显著,在美国获得了较快的发展。美国的民用住宅多为一二层的独立式木结构建筑.采用集成化、装配化的施工办法.可大大缩短建筑的施工周期,据介绍,一栋300m2的木结构独立住宅,一般一个月左右便可建成。

weishiyingzhuzhaijichenghua、zhuangpeihuadefazhan,meiguodejianzhuzhuangshicailiaojibupinshengchanqiye, doufeichangzhongshichanpindebiaozhunhua、xitonghua、peitaohua、tongyonghuagongzuo.bingbuduanditishengchanpindezhiliang、biaozhun、pinzhongxitongyijipeitaoshuiping.yiyingdegengduodeshichangfene。bizhezaijiancaichaojishichangshang.kandaodejianzhuzhuangshicailiaoruzhimianshigaoban、pvcguandao、zuobianqidengdeng,qichanpindebiaozhunhua、xitonghua、tongyonghua、peitaohuachengdudouhengao。weicujinmeiguozhuzhaidejichenghua、peitaohua、gongchanghuadefazhanzuochulegongxian。

1.2 国内装饰材料发展状况

建筑装饰装修材料一般是指主体结构工程完成后,进行室内外墙面、顶棚、地面的装饰、室内空间和室外环境美化处理所需要的材料饰目的,又可满足一定使用要求的功能性材料。建筑装饰装修材料是集材性、工艺、造型设计、色彩、美学于一体的材料

jianzhuzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaoshijicaixing、gongyi、zaoxingsheji、secai、meixueyuyitidecailiao。shipinzhongmenleifanduo、gengxinzhouqizuikuai、fazhanguochengzuiweihuoyue、fazhanqianlizuidadeyileijianzhucailiao。tafazhansududekuaiman、pinzhongdeduoshao、zhiliangdeyoulie、kuanshidexinjiu、peitaoshuipingdegaodi,juedingzhejianzhuwuzhuangshidangcidegaodi,duimeihuachengxiangjianzhu,gaishanrenmenjuzhuhuanjinghegongzuohuanjingyouzheshifenzhongyaodeyiyi。

suizhewoguorenminshenghuoshuipinghehuanjingzhiliangdebuduantigao,duijianzhuzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaotichulegenggaodeyaoqiu。yinci,ruhezuzhihaogezhongzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaodepeitaoshengchan,peitaogongying.yimanzusigexiandaihuajianshedexuyao,shibaizaiwoguojiancaizhanxianmianqiandeshifenpoqiederenwu。

1.2.1 建成了初具规模、品种门类较齐全的工业体系

80年代以来,全国掀起了开发和引进各种新型建筑装饰装修材料的热潮:一方面我国自行研究开发了一大批新型建筑装饰装修材料,另一方面从国外引进了2000多项建筑装饰装修材料生产技术和设备,这些生产线的建成和投产,使我国建筑装饰装修材料的发展水平向国际先进水平靠近了一大步。部的需要:壁纸、墙布形成了4亿m2的年生产能力;塑料地板形成了1.62m2的年生产能力;化纤地毯形成6000万m2的年生产能力;塑料管道形成45万吨的年生产能力;塑料异型材形成30万吨的年生产能力;建筑涂料形成80万吨的年生产能力;建筑陶瓷形成15.8亿m2的年生产能力;建筑卫生陶瓷形成5500万件年生产能力:铝型材形成40万吨年生产能力。发展的花色品种已达到4000多种,基本形成了初具规模、产品门类比较齐全的工业体系。 

fazhandezhuyaomenleihepinzhongruxia:

bizhi、qiangbu:zhizhibizhi、pvcsuliaobizhi、zhiwubizhi、bolixianweiyinhuatieqiangbu、wufangtieqiangbu、huaxianzhuangshitieqiangbu、sichoubibu、jinshubizhi、zhirongbizhi、zhuangshihuabizhi、qitateshugongnengbizhi

dibanditan:suliaobanyingzhidiban、pvcsuliaojuancaidiban、fanghuasudiban、kangjingdianhuodongdiban、fangfushisuliaodiban、pinhuamudiban、fuhemudiban、xiangjiaodiban、zhuzhipinhuadiban、huaxianditan、jianmaditan、xiangjiaorongditan、suliaoditan。

suliaoguandao:yingjulvyixisuliaoguan、juyixiguan、jubingxiguan、pvcshuangbibowenguan、xincengfapaopvcguan、absguan、fapaoabcguan、judingxiguan、lvxincenggaomidujuyixiguan、jiashaboligangguan。

menchuang:suliaomenchuang、tuxincaibanmenchuang、lvhejinmenchuang、boligangmenchuang、pvcfudiaozhuangshineimen、zhedieshisuliaoyixingzuhepingfeng、suliaobaiyechuanglian、lvhejinbaiyechuanglian、fanghuomen、jinshuzhuanmen、zidongmen、buxiugangmen

jianzhutuliao:jucusuanyixirujiaotuliao、lvyipiangongjuruyeneiqiangtuliao、yibingruyeneiqiangtuliao、benbingruyeneiqiangtuliao、duocaineiqiangtuliao、yuncaituliao、guisuannawujineiqiangtuliao、yibingwaiqiangruyetuliao、benbingwaiqiangrujiaotuliao、guisuanjiawujiwaiqiangtuliao、guirongjiaowujineiqiangtuliao、rongjixingbingxisuanshuzhituliao、bingxisuanxifucengtuliao、youji、wujifuhewaiqiangtuliao、huanyangshuzhidimiantuliao、jucusuanyixizhidimiantuliao、juanzhidimiantuliao。

zhuangshibancai:zhongmiduxianweizhuangshiban、baoliban、youjibolizhuangshiban、pszhuangshiban、pvczhuangshiban、zhuangshiweibomutiemianban、yinshuamuwenrenzaoban、fuyindalishizhuangshiban、meilvquban、lvsuban、fanghuoban、lvhejinzhuangshiban、buxiugangzhuangshiban、shigaozhuangshiban、boligangzhuangshiban、tongzhuangshiban

yugangzhipin:zhutietangciyugang、gangbantangciyugang、renzaodalishiyugang、renzaomanaoyugang、boligangyugang、grcyugang、yakeliyugang。

jiaozhanji:jiaozhanji、bizhi,qiangbujiaozhanji、suliaodibanjiaozhanji、suliaoguandaojiaozhanji、

zhumuzhuanyongjiaozhanji、cizhuandalishijiaozhanji、boli、youjibolijiaozhanji、suliaobomojiaozhanji、fangshuipiancaijiaozhanji。

bolizhuangshicailiao:jiasiboli、yahuaboli、shimianboli、bolijinzhuan、bolizhuan、leisheboli、caiyinboli、diaokeboli。

taocizhuangshicailiao:youmianzhuan、qiangdizhuan.daxingtaocishimianzhuan、taocijinzhuan、taocibihua。

zhuangshishicai:tianrandalishi、tianranhuagangshi、renzaodalishi、renzaohuagangshi、shuimoshi、qitarenzaozhuangshishicai。

diaodingzhuangshicailiao:shigaozhuangshixiyinban、suliaozhuangshidiaodingban、bolizhuangshidiaodingban、zhenzhuyanxiyinzhuangshiban、kuangmianxiyinzhuangshiban、bolimianzhuangshixiyinban、lvhejinzhuangshidiaodingban、caisegangbanzhuangshidiaodingban。

1.2.2 存在的主要问题

1.2.2.1 产品更新换代能力弱

kuansejiu、dangcidi、peitaoxingcha,shiyingbuleshichangjiguojijingzhengdexuyao。guowaijianzhuzhuangshizhuangxiucailiao,feichangzhongshiyanjiushichangdexuyaoyanjiugukedexinli,jishigengxinhuase、pinzhong,manzuyonghudexuyao。lirubizhi,qiangbushiguowaiguangfancaiyongdeyizhongshineiqiangmianzhuangshicailiao.qizhuangshixiaoguozhuyaoqujueyuqihuaxingjiyanse,guowaiou、mei、ridenggongyefadaguojiadebizhishengchanqiye.doufeichangzhongshihuaxingheyansedegengxin.yifazhanjibaigepinzhongjiqiangehuase、laimanzushichangdexuyao.guowaidebizhi、qiangbuyidadaoxiliehuabiaozhunhuakexuanxingjiqiangdechengdu,dantamenhaizaibuduanyanjiugengxin,tuichugenghao,gengshiheyonghuxuyaodechanpin。erguoneidebizhi、qiangshijingshiduoniandenuli,pinzhong、huasesuiyousuofazhan.danheguowaixiangbi,huasepinzhonghaihenshao.kuanshiyejiaochenjiu,jiuqiyuanyinzhuyaoshiguoneibizhishengchanchangjiashangquefasuzhigaodehuaxingshejirenyuan,huaxingdegengxinzhouqiguozhang。yinci,chanpinkexuanxingjiaocha,manzubulegenggaocengcidexuyao,yenanyicanjiaguojishichangjingzheng。

1.2.2.2 产品质量不稳定,产品流通市场混乱

riqian.guoneizhuangshizhuangxiucailiaochanpinzhiliangbuwendingshijiaoweituchudewenti,jiuqiyuantianshiduofangmiande.danzuizhuyaodeyuanyinshishengchanqiyebuyangepeifang.meiyourenzhenzhixinggongyiguichenghechanpinbiaozhunzaochengdesugangmenchuangyixingcun,yixiediquchuxiandezhiliangwenti.zhuyaoshiyixieshengchanqiye.buyangeankexuepeifang.tougongjianliaozaochengderucaiqujiadatansuangaijia^liangdengshouduanjiangdishengchanchengben,zhishiyixingcaijixiexingnengdadajiangdi:yingzhipvcsuliaodedanxingmoliangjiaodi.weibaozhengsugangchuangdekangfengya、kangbianxingxingneng.dangzaiyidingfengyaheyidingqiangdushi,chuangkuangchuangshandeneiqiangbixuzengshezengqiangxingganganbiaozhuntuguiding,zengqiangxinggangbixuyonghoudubushaoyu1.2mmdelengyagangbanyachengyidingxingzhuang.jingchenxiufangfuchuli。danyixiechangjia,buyangeanyishangbiaozhunyaoqiujiagonghechuli,yifeitie、mutiaodaitixingtongyadijiagechushou。shiyonghou,chuxianlebushaowenti,yanzhongbaihuailesugangmenchuangdeshengyu。

又如某些铝型材厂.为了压低价格参与市场竞争.生产了只有正常壁厚一半的0 6mm薄型材推向市场出售.用这样的簿型材来生产铝框格用在建筑门窗上是很危险的.是一种犯罪的行为。这种假乱真,以次充好的做法.造就了流通市场的混乱。再加上当前一些不正当的杜会风气,促销靠回扣成风.一些施工单位压低工程造价选用价低的装饰装修材料.越便宜的装饰材料越好销.符合产品标准的产品或优质产品反而不容易被采用,也即不正之风扰乱了流通市场,这是极不正常的现象,极大地妨碍了装饰装修材料的发展。

1.2.2.3 chanpinjiegoudefazhanbuheli

weileshiyingjianzhuzhuangshixianhuadefazhanxuyao.gongyefadaguojiakaifalesuliao、xiangjiaohehechengxianweideng.weizhuyaoyuanliaolaizhichenggezhongzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaodechenggong.gaibianlewujizhuangshicailiaojiqiannianlaiyitongtianxiadechanpinjiegou.shijianzhuzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaobiandefengfuduocai。lirujiudimianzhuangshicailiaoeryan,gongyefadaguojiaxianhoukaifadehuaxianditansuliaodibandimiantuliao、fuheshudibandengxinxingyoujijianzhuzhuangshizhipin,youyuzheixiezhipinzaibaowen、jieneng、gesheng、fangchongzhuheshigongdengfangmianyouzheyixilieyoudian.yiyubeijianzhu、shigongheyonghusuojieshou,huodelexunsufazhanbingzaidimianzhuangshicailiaozhongzhanyoudianyaodiwei.muqiangongyefadaguojiadedimianzhuangshicailiaoxiaofeishichangzhong.gezhongcaizhidedimianzhuangshicailiaosuozhanbicedazhiruxia:ditan(zhuyaoshihuaxianditan)wei60 ~70,suliaodibanwei15%~20%.taociqiangdizhuanwei10%~15%,shudiban、dalishidibanhuagangdibandengwei5 ~10.jiyoujileidimianzhuangshicailiaohuaxianditan、suliaodibandeng)yuezhan80%.wujileidimianzhuangshicailiao(taociqiangdizhuan.dalishi.huagangshidimiandeng)yuezhan20%,youjihewujicailiaozhibiwei80:20.zheiyibilibiaoming,gongyefadaguozaidimianzhuangshicailiaozhongyizoushangyitiaojimanzuzhuangshigongnengheshiyonggongnengyaoqiu,eryoujianjujieshengnengyuan、jieshengyunshulihefangbianshigongdefazhandaolu.

woguoxinxingdimianzhuangshicailiaojinnianlaisuiyousuofazhandanwulunpinzhongdangcijiyongliangdengfangmianheguowaigongyefadaguojiaxiangbi,douhaicunzaizhehendachaju。juchulvetongji:muqianwoguozaidimianzhuangshizhong.gezhongzhuangshicailiaodexiaohaobilidazhiruxia:taociqiangdizhuanyuewei60%~65%,dalishi、huagangshidimianyuewei10 ~l2%。suliaodibanyuewei16 ~20%.mudibanwei3~4%youjileizhuangshicailiaohewujileizhuangshicailiaozhibishen20:80.hegongyefadaguojiasuocaiyongdecailiaoleibieganghaoxiangfan,shuomingwoguodimianzhuangshicailiaodechanyejiegoubutaiheli.zouderengshiyitiaonenghaogao、yunshuliangda,shengchanheshigongxiaolvdoujiaodidefazhandaolu。

第二章  我国环保装饰材料的发展

2.1 zhuangshicailiaoyuhuanbao

jianzhuzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaoshiyingyongzuiguangfandejianzhugongnengcailiao,shenshoudaoguangdaxiaofeizhedeguanzhu。suizherenmenniuhuoshuipingdetigaohehuanbaoyishidezengqiang,jianzhuzhuangshigongchengzhongbujinyaoqiucailiaodemeiguan、naiyong,tongshigengguanzhudeshiyouwuduhai,duirentidejiankangyingxiangjihuanjingdeyingxiang。

youyujianzhuzhuangshicailiaodeshiyongzhijieyurenmenderichangshenghuoxiangguan,suoyijianzhuzhuangshicailiaodehuanbaowentitebieweiguangdaxiaofeizhesuozhongshi。zhongguohuanjingbiaozhichanpinrenzhengweiyuanhuisuozhidingdehuanjingbiaozhichanpinzhong,zhuangshicailiaozhanyoubijiaodadefene;tongshi,weilequanmianjiaqiangjianzhuzhuangshicailiaoshiyongdeanquanxing,kongzhishineihuanjingdewuran,guojiazhiliangjiandujianyanjianyizongjuyu2001niandizuzhizhuanjiazhuanmenzhidinglel0zhongshineizhuangxiucailiaodewuranwukongzhibiaozhun,zheil0zhongcailiaozhuyaobaokuo:renzaoban、neiqiangtuliao、muqituliao、jiaozhanji、ditan、bizhi、jiaju、dibange、hunningtutianjiaji、youfangshexingdejianzhuzhuangshicailiaodeng。

2.1.1 木质装饰板

zhuangshibanshiliyongtianranshuzhong(rushuiquliu、xiangmu、jumu、fengmu、yingtaomudengshushizhong)zhuangshidanbanhuorenzaomuzhizhuangshidanbantongguojingmichuangqiehuoxuanqiejiagongfangfazhidedebomupian,tiezaijicaishang,caiyongxianjindejiaozhangongyi,jingreyazhichengdeyizhonggaojizhuangshibancai。zhuangshibanzuoweiyizhongbiaomianzhuangshicailiao,bunengdandushiyong,zhinengzhantiezaiyidinghouduhejuyouyidingqiangdudejicaibanshang,rudaxinban、duocengjiaoheban、zhongmiduxianweibanhebaohuabandeng,cainengdedaohelidiliyong。ancaizhifenleizhuangshibankefenweitianranmuzhitiemianherenzaomuzhitiemian。tianranmuzhidanbantiemiantianranmuzhihuawen,wenlituanziran,bianyixingbijiaoda,wuguize,wurengongzaozuo,zhenshiganhelitiganqiang,beirenmenguangfanshiyongyushineizhuangxiuzhong。renzaomuzhitiemiandewenlijibenweitongzhiwenli,wenlituanyouguize,yinqibiaomianjiaonaimo、naiqingxi、bupashui、shiyongfanweizhengzaibuduankuoda。muqianshijiegeguodoushifenguanzhuhuanjingdekechixufazhan,duisenlinziyuanjinxingbaohudehushengriyigaozhang。caiyongtianranmuzhitiemiancailiaozhishigeshijianwenti,errengonghecheng、renzaomuhezhizhitiemiancailiaoquerdaizhishibirandequshi。

renzaobancaitongchangshiyouxiaomuxie、shupi、guoshihuoyama、yamaxianwei,jiarushuzhi、jiaozhanjitongguoreyazhanheercheng。changjianderenzaobancaiyoujiaoheban、xianweiban、baohuaban、ximugongban、musiban、shimianfanghuobandeng,tamenguangfanyongyudingpeng、geduan、tijiaoxian、menchuangkoudengzhaomianbangongchengzhong。fuhemudibanshidimianzhuangshicailiaozhiyi,tashiyoumuxianweijijiaojiangjinggaowengaoyayazhierchengde,shisuihuagongyuanlidefazhanerfazhanqilaideyizhongxinxingcailiao,youyuqijuyounaimo、naichongji、qiangdugao、hanshuilvdi、biaomiannaizhuoshaodengtedianeryuelaiyueshoudaorenmendeqinglai。mudiban、qianghuamudiban、renzaobandengmuzhuangshicailiaomeiguanxinidewenli、rouhedeseze、fuyudanxing、zirandesecaiyuguangzejirenyidianya、qinqie、wenhezhigan。zaishineizhuangshizhongjuyoubuketidaidediwei。yongzuoshineizhuangshiderenzaobancaizaishengchanshisuoshiyongdejiaozhanjishiyijiaquanweizhuyaochengfendeniaoquanshuzhi,bancaizhongcanliudeheweicanyufanyingdejiaquanhuizhujianxiangzhouweihuanjingshifang,shixingchengshineikongqizhongjiaquandezhuti。

2.1.2 塑料装饰板

zhuangshibanshiyizhongjuyouqingzhi、gaoqiang、gesheng、touguang、fanghuo、kewanqu、anzhuangfangbian、kanglaohuadengtediandejianzhuzhuangshibancai。gaichanpindetuiguangyingyong,bujinketidaichuantongdexiaohaoyicixingziyuandejianzhucailiao,rumucai、gangcaideng,haikeyigaishanjianzhugongneng、meihuahuanjing,manzuxiandaijianzhuzhuangshidexuqiu。suliaozhuangshibancaiyijushiyongdeshuzhiyuanliaobutongkefenwei:jutansuanzhiban、julvyixizhuangshiban、juyixizhuangshiban、jubingxizhuangshibandeng。youyucailiaodebutong,qichanpinxingnengheshiyonggongnengyiyouchayi。yibaneryan,suliaozhuangshibankeguangfanyongyuxiandaijianzhudeneiwaizhuangshizhuangxiu、shineidiaodingzhuangxiudeng。

suliaozhuangshibandelvsehuanbaoxingweizhuyaotixianzai3gefangmian:① keyitidaidaliangdenenghaogao、ziyuanduanquedegangcai、mucai、lvcaideng,shengchanguochengjienenghuanbao;② suliaozhuangshibanshiyonganquanweisheng;③youyusuliaozhuangshibanweigaofenzicailiaozhicheng,zhiqing、gaoqiang、anzhuangfangbian,kejieshengjichu、yunshu、anzhuangdengfangmiandefeiyong。

2.1.3 室内装饰用涂料与内墙涂料

shizhuangxiutuliaokefenweimuqizhuangxiuqihenei、waiqiangtuliao。zaishineizhuangxiuzhong,neiqiangtuliaoyidaliangqudaiqiangzhi,juanzhimuqiqidezhuangshiyezhanjiaodadebizhong。youxieliezhineiqiangtuliaojiaquanhanliangchaobiao,haihanyouyidingliangdejiaben、erjiaben、anheqiandeng;chunsuanseqizhongqiangedehanliangchaobiaozuishen,qicishiben、jiabenheerjiaben。rongjixingjuanzhimuqiqihanyouvoc、benleirongjiheyoulitdideng。

rongjixingtuliaoduidaqiwuran,duirenleijiankangyouyingxiang。zhi2000nian,oumeidengfadaguojiayixianzhirongjixingtuliaodeyingyong。ershuixingtuliaowuwuran、wuduhai,fuhegeguodehuanjingzhengce,weiguangdayonghujieshou。qizhong,yibingxisuanzhileiruyeweijichudeshuixingtuliaoshizonghexingnengzuihaodeyizhong。shiwenjiaoliandebingxisuanzhileiruyejuyouxuduoduteyouyixingneng:(1)wudu、wuwuran,huanjingxiediaoxingyou;(2)shiwenxiashixiangaojiaolian,dadajianhuatuzhuanggongyi,chengmoxingjijia;(3)youliangdenaishuixinghekangwuranxing;(4)youliangdenailaohuaxing,shiyongshoumingdadayanzhang;(5)lianghaodeyingdu、qiangdu、zhanjielaoduheguangzedu;(6)yongtuguangfan。shiwenjiaoliandebingxisuanzhileiruyeshiyizhongquanxindehuanbaoxingzhuangxiuyongqi,tadeguangze、yingdu、naishuixingdengzhuyaoyingyongzhibiaojunkeyumuqianchangyongdexiaojiqingqihejuzhiqingqixiangpimei。jiangnamilizitianjiadaojuhewutuliaozhong,keyizengqiangtucengdeqiangdu、naihuashang、fuzheli、naifushixingnengjigaishanzengshui、zengyouxingdeng,shigaishanjuhewutuliaoxingnengdeyouxiaotujing,zaijianzhu、jiajudengduogelingyuyingyong。

2.1.4 胶粘剂

rongjixingjiaozhanjizaizhuangshixingyerengyouyidingshichang,erqishiyongderongjiduoweijiaben,qizhonghanyou30%yishangdeben,danyinweijiage、rongjiexing、zhanjiexingdengyuanyin,haibeiyixieqiyecaiyong。yixiejiatinggoumaideshafashifangchudaliangdeben,zhuyaoyuanyinshizaishengchanzhongshiyonglehanbengaodejiaozhanji。congwoguojiaozhanjihetuliaodefazhanlichenglaikan,chuantongdejianzhuzhuangshi、zhuangxiuyongjiaozhanjikefenweirongjixingjiaozhanji(wannengjiao)heshuijixingjiaozhanji(bairujiao)。

zhangqiyilaibeiguangfanshiyongderongjixingjiaozhanjidaduoyiben、jiabenhuoerjiabenweizhuyaorongji。zaishiyongguochengzhong,daliangdebenxiwuzhihuifazaikongqizhong,wuranlekongqi,jirentizaochengweihai。wurongjixingdehuanjingyouhaodeshuijijiaozhanjizhengzhujianqudairongjixingjiaozhanji。muqianshichangshangshiyongdijideshuijixingjiaozhanjihuodizhiliangdeshuixingtuliaosuiranbuhandaliangdebenxiwu,danzaishiyongguochengzhong,youlidejiaquanhuizhujianxiangzhouweihuanjingshifang,zaochengkongqiwuran。huanjing、renleijiankangxuyaogaoxingneng、gaozhiliang、fuhehuanbaoyaoqiudejiankangxingzhuangshiyongjiaozhanji。zai21shijichudeshiniannei,woguoyingzhongdianfazhangaoxingnengdehuanbaoxingshuijijiaozhanji,jinkuaizhidingjiaozhanjideguojiazhiliangbiaozhun,jiakuaitaotaibufenzhiliangdi、wurandadejiaozhanjichanpinru107jiao、lvdingjiaohejiaquanshifangliangchaobiaodeniaoquanjiaodeng。

2.1.5 天然石材与陶瓷材料

tianranshicaizhongguangfanbeiyingyongdezhuyaoshihuagangshihedalishi。tianranshicaiyiqiqiangdugao、yingduda、naimo、naisuan、naijiuxinghaoyijiqiteyoudeseze、wenlihesecaidengzhuangshitedianguangfanyingyongyugonggongjiminyongjianzhudeqiangmian、zhumian、dimianjitaimiandengbuwei。shineizhuangshiyongtaocicailiaozhuyaoweidimian、qiangmian、zhumianyongtaocizhuanyijichufang、weishengjianyongweishengjiejudeng。qiqiangdugao、jianying、naimo、naisuanjian、yiqingjie,secai、huawen、tuanfengfu,yinershoudaorenmendeqinglai。danshaoshutianranshicaijitaocicailiaozhonghanyoufangshexingyuansuru:tu、you、dongqideng。tianranshicaizhongdefangshexingweihaizhuyaoyoulianggefangmian,jitineifusheyutiwaifushe。dongduirentizhifangyouhengaodeqinheli,congeryingxiangrendeshenjingxitong,shirenjingshenbuzhen,hunhunyushui。duitaocicailiaodefangshexingwentimuqianyiyinqirenmendezhongshi,weijingshi(yichengweijingboli、weijingtaoci、jiejinghuaboli)shijinjinianlaizaijianzhuxingyezhongzhanlutoujiaodexinchanpin,shixinxingdelvsehuanbaojianzhuzhuangshicailiao。tadewenshi,manzulexiandaishehuiduiguangliliangze、qipaihaohuazhuangshideyaoqiu,tongshiyeshunyingledianyagaoguidexinxingjiancaifazhandechaoliu。weijingshishiyizhongcaiyongtianranwujicailiaojinggaowenshaojiejinghuaerchengdexinxinggaodangzhuangshicailiao。tajiyouteshudeweijingjiegou,youyouteshudebolijizhijiegou,zhidixini,banmianjingyingliangli,duiyusheruguangxiannengchanshengkuosanmanfanshexiaoguo,shirenganjueroumeihexie。weijingshichanpinjuyouziranrouhedezhigan、fengfuduocaideyanse、jididexishuilvbuyishouwuran、naisuanjianxingjia、naihouxingyouliang、qiangduda、keqinglianghua、kewanquchengxing、jingjishengshi、buhanfangshexingyuansubusunhaishentidengtedian。

2.2 环保材料发展趋势

2.2.1 无甲醛人造板

muqianguoneishengchandegezhongrenzaobansuoshiyongdemucaijiaozhanjijibenshangshiniaoquanshuzhi,niaoquanshuzhishiyoujiaquan+niaosujuheerchengde,yincijiaquanshifangliangjibenshangjundayue1≤1.5mg/l,shenzhiyuandayue2≤5.0 mg/l,jijiatingzhuangxiudailailejidadewuran,jigeyueneiwufaruzhu。shijishangjiaquanhuanmanshifangchixushijianda3―15nian,fuchudeshimiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaidejiankang。erwujiaquanrenzaobanyitianranzhiwuweiyuanliao,jingteshuhechenggongyiyanzhierchengdejiaozhanji,chedibingqilejiaquan、niaosuhechengniaoquanshuzhiweimucaijiaozhanjizheixieduishentizaochengweihaidewuzhi,jiaoheqiangduwanquandadaoguojiabiaozhun,“wujiaquanjiao”xiliechanpinyidadaoouzhoue0jiheribenfc0jibiaozhunyaoqiu,shiyonganquan,shixiaofeizhekeyiwanquanxindeguodezhenzhengdelvsejiankangchanpin。

2.2.2 低放射性石材

2.2.2.1 关于放射性

miaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaisuoshuodefangshexingduirentideweihailaiziliangfangmian:yishitiwaifushe(waizhaoshe);lingyigeshirentineifangshexingyuansusuodaozhideneizhaoshe。zaitongchangqingkuangxia,miaosufeitingappguanfangxiazairenleisuoshoudaodefusheshudijiliangfushe。fangshexingduirentizuidadeweihaizhuyaoshifangshexingyuansuzaishuaibianguochengzhongsuochanshengde“dong”,yejiushimiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaisuoshuodeneizhaoshe。dongshiyizhongfangshexingyuansu,qieshiqiti。ruguorenzhangqishenghuozaidongnongduguogaodehuanjingzhong,dongjingguorendehuxidaochenjizaifeibu,youqishizhiqiguanjishangpizuzhinei,bingdaliangfangchushexian,congerweihairentijiankang。youkuangshidongnongdujiaogaodediqu,ouzhouzaozai1937nianfaxianyoukuanggongdefeibudefabinglvshiputongrende28.7bei。

2.2.2.2 lvseshicai

lvseshicaijiuyingdangcongkancha、kaicai、jiagongdengfangmianlaikaolv:

kancha:shouxianyaolejiequyudizhiqingkuang,shifouyouzhuanyededizhiduiwujinxingkancha。shouxianshipucha,tongguopucha,yingzhangwoshicaidehuasepinzhong、huangliaokuaidu、dazhikaicaitiaojian、jiaotongshuidian、fangshexingshuipingdeng。

kaicai:shicaizaikaicaiqianshouxianyingjinxingcailiaodejianceyufenxijifangshexingceshi,yibianweixiayibudekaicaiheyingyongdaxiajichu,tigaohuangliaodechucailvyeshizhongyaoneirongzhiyi。

jiagong:jiagongguochengzhongsuoyongdeshebeishifouxianjinyeshishicailvsehuadeneirongzhiyi,rudabanjuqiejiagongshebei,muqianguowaisuoyongderukuangjiajuji,duoshengshijingangshichuanzhujuyijizhuangyoudaixinghuolianxingdaojudeshicaidabanjiagongshebeidoukeyizuodaojiagongchicunda,xiaolvgao,shoumingzhang。

2.2.3 环保涂料

huanbaotuliaozaoyibushidaimingci,yirujiaoqiweidaibiaodeshuixingtuliaojiushimuqianzuiliuxingdehuanbaotuliao。buguo,rujiaoqizhuyaoyongyuqiangmiandetushi,duiyujinnianlaixianqirechaodejiajuquebudashiyong,zheijiushifeihuanbaoderongjixingmuqiqichengweiwuranshineikongqidezhuyaoyuanxiongzhiyi。jinlai,yizhongyongyumuzhijiajudeshuixingmuqiqiyingyunersheng,tayishuiweijiezhi,wuduwuwei、wuhuanjingwuran,erqieqimopinghuaguangliang.bimianlechuantongmuqiqicibiqiwei,wanquanfuhetuliaohuanbaohuadefazhanqushi。duogongnengtuliaoquanmiankaihua。rujin,xiandaituliaopinzhongfanduo,qigongnengyeyuelaiyuequanmian,fangshui、fanghuo、fangchao、fangmei、fangfu、fangtanhua,tuliaoyanranchenglejiajuweishi。hanfangshuipeifangderujiaoqiyidatedianshikexica。buguo,yibanderujiaoqizaijingguoduocicaxihou,huidiaofen。xianzai,changjiazaiyuanyoudejichushanggengjiawanshanhejiaqianglefangshuizheiyitexing,shirujiaoqidejiaomogengying、qimiangengyiqingxi。yizhongdeguodunpaitaocigeretuliaoxinpin,zeshijinqijinjungeretuliaoshichangdeshenglijun。tashiyoujixiaodezhenkongtaociweiqiuheyuqitaxiangshiyingdehuanbaoruyezuchengshuixingtuliao,yuqiangti、jinshu、muzhipindengyoujiaoqiangdefuzheli,zhijiezaijitibiaomiantumoo.3mmzuoyou,jikedadaogerebaowendemude。

fangchongfangmeituliaoburushichang。fangchongfangmeituliaozhuyaoshizaibaochituliaozhuangshixingdeqiantixia,tianjiajuyoushengwuduxingdeyaopinzhichengdetuliao。yinci,gaoxiaoyouliangdeqieduirentiwuhaidefangchongfangmeijishishengchanyouliangdefangchongfangmeituliaodeguanjian。jinnianlai,fangchongfangmeituliaozaiguowaikaishiburushichang,shenshouxiaofeizhedehuanying。youqishizaishipingongyedejianzhugongchengshangyouzhelianghaodeshichang。

2.2.4 无甲醛胶粘剂

tongchangzaibanshijiajuzhonghuiyongdaojiaozhanji,xianzaihanjiaquanliangjiaoshao,jiaohuanbaodejiaozhanjiyou:jucusuanyixizhi(pvac,danzufenjishuangzufen)、shuangzufenyiqingsuanzhijiao(epi)、 xianquanshuzhijiao(uf,fenzhuanghuoyeti),rerongjiao(hot  melt)、yixiyicusuanyixizhi(eva)leijijuanzhilei(pu).evayetijiao(danzufenjishuangzufen)yijirongjixingjiao。

聚醋酸乙烯酯(PVAc):这种胶有单组份和双组份两种,按照欧标EN2O4 /205耐水等级可分为D1,D2,D3和 D4 .其中D1,D2,D3类通常是单组分胶,D4类为单双组分胶。其中D3,D4耐水性、耐热性较高。PVAc 胶可在常温或低温条件下胶合(900C以下,通长用于指接、榫接(Finger,dowel jointing)、贴面(Flatlaminating )、拼板(Wood 1aminating )及组装(Assembly )等工艺中。生产中可在压机、指接机、拼接机上使用。

第三章   室内空气污染

shineikongqihuanjingshirenmenjiechuzuipinfan、zuimiqiedewaihuanjingzhiyi,zaifadaguojia,renmendedabufenshijianshizaishineiduguode。biru,zuijinzaimeiguojuminzhongdeyixiangdiaochafaxian,yigerenpingjunrichang88%deshijianzaishinei,7%zaijiaotonggongjuzhong,zhiyou5%deshijianshizaishiwaiduguode。

yinci,xianjinguanyueliedeshineikongqizhiliangduijiankangdeyingxiangguanzhuzhujianzengjia。jinguanxianzaidedabufendejianzhudeshineikongqizhiliangbuhuilikefanyingchuwenti,dandaliangdejibinghezhengzhuangquelaiyuanyufeigongyedeshineikongqizhiliangwuran,shineikongqiwuranwujilaiyuanjianbiao3-1

表3-1  室内空气污染物及来源

污染物 主要来源 过敏源 垃圾、家畜、昆虫 石棉 抗热材料、绝缘物 二氧化碳 新陈代谢、燃烧、汽车 一氧化碳 燃料燃烧、煮器、炉子、煤气炉、烟草烟雾 甲醛 家具、绝缘材料 微生物 人、动物、植物、空调系统 二氧化氮 室外空气、燃料燃烧、汽车 有机物 粘合剂、溶剂、建筑材料、挥发物、燃烧、涂料、烟草烟雾 臭氧 光化学反应 颗粒 再悬浮物、烟草烟雾、燃烧产物 多环芳烃 燃料燃烧、烟草烟雾 花粉 室外空气、木料、草、野草、植物 氡 土壤、建筑材料 真菌孢子 土壤、植物、粮食 二氧化硫 室外空气、燃料燃烧

yixiashibeijingshiweishengfangyizhanzai2004nianduibeijingjiajushichang、bangongchangsuo、juminlou、binguandengchangsuodexianchangdiaochaqingkuang:                                                     

3.1 家具城调查

从表3-2中可以看出,冬夏季甲醛平均值高于我国目前制定的公共场所室内卫生标准,夏季室内甲醛浓度高于冬季,差异有显著性。经过统计分析,夏季室内空气中氨的分布呈集合正态分布,这次调查共检测216件样品,检测结果范围为0.21-1.02mg/m3,平均含量0.32mg/m3.最大值1.02mg/m3,高于理发馆卫生

表3-2  冬夏季室内空气卫生质量和有毒物质检测结果

 

  注:以上检测数据,除CO2为百分比浓度外,其余的单位均以mg/m3表示;甲醛(个体)表示从业人员的甲醛个体接触剂量

biaozhunzhi1bei。tongguozheicidiaocha,zhengmingmuqianbeijingshichangjiajuchengshineikongqizhongdezhuyaowuranwuweijiaquanhean。jiaquancainuanqihefeicainuanqidejiancejieguopingjunzhifenbiegaoyugonggongchangsuoweishengbiaozhun0.3beihe3.3bei。zuidazhifenbiegaoyugonggongchangsuoweishengbiaozhun3.5beihe15.8bei。anyangpinchaobiaolvwei10%.

3.2 办公场所空气质量调查

表3-3 办公楼室内空气污染物指标

  从表可以看出,与卫生标准相比,办公室内空气污染相当严重,除可吸入颗粒物未超过卫生标准(室内空气质量标准为0.15mg/m3)外,其他标准均超过卫生标准。依据对部分职员作口头询问调查发现,约有60%-70%的职员出现类似于国外所说的建筑物综合症(SBS),感到眼刺激,上呼吸道刺激,疲倦等综合症。国外已从环境毒理学和环境流行病学方面证实,人们患建筑物综合症等疾患,主要是由于室内空气污染,室内空气质量下将引起的。

甲醛是致病的主要因素,该办公室内甲醛含量超过我国居室空气中的卫生标准(0.08mg/m3)的十倍以上按WHO推荐室内空气中甲醛含量标准30min平均含量为0.1 mg/m3也超过了8倍以上。目前所生产的人造板使用大量的尿醛树脂黏合剂,游离的甲醛会不断释放出来污染室内空气。在美国调查900幢住宅中近2000名居民,关于出现不适症状与甲醛污染浓度的关系的研究证明,当甲醛含量≧0.3 mg/m3时,有近90%的人诉说感到眼部刺激,74%以上的感到鼻和呼吸道刺激,有42%-83%的人出现头痛。因此该办公楼内的职员出现不适症状,甲醛污染(≧0.85 mg/m3)是主要原因之一。

具有代表性的苯、甲苯和二甲苯等芳香族化合物,其含量分别超过WHO 指导标准0.05 mg/m3 的2-10倍,他们的总和则超过WHO指导标准的30倍以上。内墙涂料、家具和办公室设备等是这些污染物的主要来源。这些VOC会影响中枢神经系统和免疫功能,引起头痛、疲劳、注意力不集中和记忆力下降等症状。

氨浓度超过我国居住区大气中有害物质的最高允许浓度0.2 mg/m3 的7倍以上。氨强烈刺激眼睛和呼吸道系统,影响中枢神经系统,产生不舒适感。二氧化碳被认为是室内通风换气量是否充足的示踪气体,表中浓度超过公共场所卫生标准规定的0.1%,反映出通风换气量不足,未能有效的使用室外新鲜空气稀释室内空气污染物,致使这些空气污染物滞留在室内时间较长,浓度升高,影响人们健康。

yinci,chukexiruchenwai,jiaquan、an、haoyangliang、ben、jiaben、erjiaben、eryanghuatanhexijunzongshujunchaoguoxiangguanbiaozhun1-10bei。gaibangongshikongqiwuranjiaoyanzhong。                                                                            

3.3 居民楼调查

表3-4 不同装修程度住房空气中的甲醛含量

  从表中可以看出,未经任何装饰的3间空房测定的甲醛质量含量分别为0.026mg/m3、0.030 mg/m、0.037 mg/m3,平均为0.031 mg/m3,与一般室外空气中甲醛质量浓度处在想到那个水平,甲醛可能主要源于室外大气,此时室内不存在甲醛释放源或释放源忽略。刷墙半月后的空房测得的质量含量为0.070 mg/m3,说明强体材料中可能释放甲醛。

cidiaocharenweimuzhipinshijiatingzhuangxiuzhongjiaquandezhuyaolaiyuan。kenengdeyuanyinshimuzhipinxuyaoshiyongnianheji、tuliao、fangfuji,zheixieyuanliaozhonghanyoujiaquan。xinzhuangxiuzhuzhaifangjianzaiguanbimenchuangyiduanshijianhou,youyudiban、jiajudengdejiaquanshifang,kedaozhijiaquannongduchaoguobiaozhunnongdu,congerduijuminjiankangzaochengbuliangyingxiang。

3.4 宾馆类民用建筑调查

表3-5  4家宾馆卫生质量检测结果 (±S)

  zhu:yushiwaiduizhaobijiaop<0.05

表3-6  从业人员自觉症状检出情况

项目 症状 眼刺激 鼻刺激 咽刺激 失眠 头晕、头痛 皮肤干燥 阳性数 阳性率/% 阳性数 阳性率/% 阳性数 阳性率/% 阳性数 阳性率/% 阳性数 阳性率/% 阳性数 阳性率/% 接触组对照组 300 50.00 182 30.03.3 425 70.08.3 102 16.73.3 204 33.36.7 86 13.410.0 χ2P值 40.00<0.01 15.36<0.01 47.88<0.01 5.92<0.05 13.33<0.01 0.32>0.05

youbiaozhongkezhi,gaibinguankefangyuwenhuayulechangsuokongqizhongbufenjiancediandejiaquanhekexirukeliwunongduchaoguoguojiaweishengbiaozhun。congyerenyuanzijuezhengzhuangjianchulvzai13.4%-70.0%zhijian,shuomingbinguanshineiwuranjiaoyanzhong,yiduichangsuoneibaoluderenqunzaochengbutongchengdudeweihai。bendiaochazhong,gaishidabufenbinguanzaizhuangxiujiesuhoumashangtourushiyong,erzhongyangkongdiaozhuyaoyongyudiaojieshineikongqiwenduerjiaoshaokaolvxinfengdegongji,guxinfengliangdabudaoweishengdebiaozhun,tongshizirantong.fengjiaocha,daozhishineishangshuwuranwuzhinongdushenggao。

3.5 关于氡污染调查

zairenmenrichangshenghuosuojieshoudeshineiwuranwuzhong,dongqishiweiyidefangshexingqitiwuranwu,congfangshexingyuansuleishuaibianerlai,wuse、yirongyuzhifang,ketongguohuxiguochengzhongjinrurenti。dongnengzaizhifangzuzhi、shenjingxitong、wangzhuangneipixitonghexueyezhongguangfanfenbu,duixibaozaochengsunshang,zuizhongyoufaaibian。juyanjiuzhengming,zaimeiguo,youyudongwuranmeinianzhisiderenshu21000ren,chaoguoleaizibingdezhisirenshu。yinci,dongbeiwho(guojiweishengzuzhi)gongbuwei19zhongzhuyaohuanjingzhiaiwuzhiyi,qiebeiguojiaizhongneigeyanjiujigoulierushineizhuyaozhiaiwu。

youzhongguozhumingfushefanghuzhuanjiayuheanquanzhuanjiawangzuoyuanjiaoshoulingdao《shineidongyuqitayinsuduifeiaiweixianduyingxiang》deketiyuqunian8yuezaibeijingtongguojianding,zheixianglishi9nian,sheji400wanrenkoudeliuxingbingxuediaocha,wei“jiaodinongdudongyekezengjiafeiaifabinglv”delundianzhaodaolezhijiezhengju。diaochayanjiufaxian,jishijushidinongdudongshuiping,yehuiyinqifeiaifabinglvdezengjia,dongpingjunhanliangmeilifangmizengjia100bq,feiaifabinglvkezenggao19-31%。

jushineihuanjingjiancezhongxinzhuanjiajiance,jushihuanjingzhongdongzhuyaoyouyixiajigelaiyuan。

1.laiziyudixiadijiturang dijiturangdekuosan,tongguodibiaoheqiangtiliefengerjinrushinei。

2.来自于地下水 研究证明,水中氡含量达到104Bq/m3时,便是室内的重要氡源。

3.laiziyushiwaikongqi shiwaidaqizhongdedonghuisuizheshiwaikongqijinrushinei。

4.tianranqideranshao zaishaotianranqiheshiyouyehuaqishi,ruguoshineitongfengbuhao,qizhongdedongquanbushifangdaoshinei。

5.laiziyujianzhucailiaoheshineizhuangshicailiao tebieshiyixiekuangzha、luzhazhuandengjianzhucailiaotongchangdouhanyoubutongchengdudeleiheneixiehanyougaodeshineizhuangshicailiao,ruhuagangyanhecizhuan、jiejudeng。

第四章   室内环保装饰

dangdaishehui,renmenshenghuohaole,tourujukuanmaifangzhuangxiuchenglehenduojiatingdegongtongdejingli。raner,yousheihuixiangdao,zhuangxiudetongshiquekenengzaishenbianmaixiayike“dingshizhadan”。

zhongguoshineihuanjingjianceweiyuanhuijinnianfabu“3.15”shineihuanjingtebiejingshi,jiaquanyichengweibeijingjiatingzhongdiyidashineiwuranwu。zaishineihuanjingjiancezhongxinqunianjiancede1000duohubeijingxinzhuangxiujiatingzhong,jiaquanchaobiaodezhandaole60%,jiaquannongdupingjunchaoguoguojiabiaozhun4bei,zuigaochaoguoguojiabiaozhun6bei。

juhaerbinshineihuanjingjiancezhongxindezhouxiaocongjieshao,jinlai,haerbinshidexuduoganggangzhuangxiuwandejuminjiatingweituoqishangmenjinxingshineiwuranjiance,zaidui400duohudejuminjiazhongjiancefaxian,jiaquanchaobiaodezhandao90%zuoyou,benchaobiaodezhandao30%zuoyou。

jiezhijinnian3yue8ri,shamenkouanyijinkoushicai600duopi。shamenjianyanjianyiduiyuezhanzongpiciyibandehuowushishidaolejiance,dui18picunzaidechaobiaoxianyideshicaisongyangjinxinghesufenxi,jieguolingrendanyou:gongyou11pi2038dunjinkoushicaishuyuguojiayanlingbunengyongyuileiminyongjianzhudeneishimian,tamenfenbieshilaizibaxi、fenlanheaozhoudefenlanlv、hualanlv、kamenlv、kairuihong、jinzuanma、aozhouzong,zonghuozhijin33wanmeiyuan。duiyuzheixieshicai,shamenjianyanjianyijuyilelingqitingzhishiyongyuileijianzhuwudeneizhuangshi。

4.1 室内环境污染原因分析

4.1.1zhuangshicailiaomeiyoudadaohuanbaobiaozhun

4.1.1.1 guoneijiancaifazhanzongtishuipingbugou

woguodejiancaifazhanzhenzhengqibuyu20shiji80niandai,bixifangguojialuohoule70duonian。jingguoershiduoniandefazhan,woguojianlilemenleiqiquandejiancaigongye,shixianleshuliangdefeiyue,danshizaizhiliangshangquemeiyouqudehendadejinbu,zheijiuzhijiedaozhilezaizhuangxiuguochengzhongchuxiandewuranwenti。

4.1.1.2 zhuangshizhuangxiuxingyebuguifanfazhan

(1) guojiafalvfaguibujianquan

zhuangshixingyezaiguoneidefazhanyeshizuijinshiniancaixingqide,qifazhanshuipinghaichuyuhaitijieduan,jiqibuchengshu。duiqixingyedefazhanguifan,guojiayouguandeguanlibumenmuqianhaichuyutansuoyanjiujieduan,zai2002nian1yue1ri,guojiazhiliangjiandujianyanjianyizongjubiaozhunhuaweiyuanhuifuzezuzhixiudingdeyouguan“shineizhuangshizhuangxiucailiao”de10xiangbiaozhunkaishizhixingle,shichangguoduqiweibannian。dangnian1yue1riqishengchanqiyedechanpinyinggaizhixing10xiangguojiabiaozhun,dangnian7yue1riqi,

shichangshangtingzhixiaoshoubufuhegai10xiangguojiabiaozhundechanpin。

(2) zhuangshixingyedebuguifanjingzheng

bansuizhejianzhucailiaoxingyedebuduanfazhanjinbu,cailiaodexingnengyezaibuduandegaishan,muqianshichangsuiranchongchizhedaliangbufuhuanbaoyaoqiudecailiao,danhuanbaocailiaohaishiyoude,danshihenduodezhuangxiugongsiweilejiangdichengbenzhuiqiulirunwangwanghuixuanzejiagediliandanzhiliangdiliedezhuangxiucailiao,zheixiechanpindabufendoumeiyoudadaohuanbaobiaozhun,zaiyongyujiatingzhuangxiushikendinghuidaozhikongqiwurande。

4.1.2 施工和设计不规范

zheiliyougegainianwenti,jianzhucailiaodabiao≠shineihuanjinghege。cailiaozhongyouhaiwuzhidexianliangbiaozhunyuzhuangxiuhouhuanjingjiancebiaozhun,shilianggebutongdebiaozhun。zheizhongbutongbiaoxianzaiqianzheshiduiyumouyixiang,houzheshizonghesuoyou。lingwailiangzhedejisuanbiaozhunbutong,jiancaizhongyouhaiwuzhideshifangliangshiyimianjiweidanwei,ershineihuanjingjianceduiyuyouhaiqitishiyitijijisuande。yijiaquanweili,jiashezaiyitao100pingfangmidejushili,shiyong10duozhanghuanbaodaxinban,shineihuanjingzhongdejiaquanhanliangyexushifuheguojiabiaozhunde,danruguozaizheitaojushineishiyong30duozhangdaxinban,neimeshineidejiaquanhanlianghenkenengjiuhuichaobiao,jiancejieguojiuhuishiwuran。

zaijiatingzhuangxiuguochengzhong,youdejiatingweilezhuiqiuhaohua,daliangshiyongyouhaiwuzhihanliangbijiaogaodeyixiecailiao,suiranzheixiecailiaoyidadaohuanbaobiaozhun,dantamendedaliangshiyonghuidaozhileijiwuran,zaihuanjingjianceshiyouhaiwuzhikendingyehuichaobiaode。

zhuangshigongsizaijinxingjiazhuangshejishi,wangwanghuihulvecailiaodedapeishiyong,zhengtibujuyekenengbingbuheli。liru,zaipushimudibanshi,haimezaixiamianjiapuyicengximugongban,mudeshishidibangengjiapingzheng,caitashidejiaogangenghao,danconghuanbaojiaodukaolv,zheibingmeiyoubiyao,yinweiyidanpudianzaixiacengdeximugongbancunzaizhiliangwenti,jiaquandengyouhaiqitihuitouguoshangcengshimudibanxiangwaikuosan、shifang。neishi,wulungenghuanhuochaichu,huafeidouhuihengao。

4.2 室内环境污染解决办法

4.2.1  预防

4.2.1.1 kexuexuancai

yaozuodaohuanbaozhuangxiu,shouxianyaodujueyouhaicailiao。xiaofeizheyinggaiqinliqinwei,bahaocailiaoguan。youyuxiaofeizheyongrouyanwufashibiechanpinshifouhege,yincizaixuangouzhuangshizhuangxiucailiaoshiyingxiangjingyingzhesuoyaochanpindequanxiangjianyanbaogao。liru,zaigoumaidalishihehuagangyanshi,jingyingzheyingtigongchanpindefangshexingzhibiao;zaigoumaidibanshi,yaochakanchanpindejiaquanshifangliangzhibiao,youjihuifawuzhibiaohechicunwendingxing。zaigoumaijiajushi,yingsuoyao《jiajushiyongshuoming》,kanshifoubiaominglejiaquandehanliang。tongshizhuyijiajudeyongliao,zuihaoxuanyongmubancailiaomifengchengdujiaogaodejiaju。lingwai,zhuyichanpinjianyanbaogaodezhenshixing。dangxiaofeizhehuaiyijianyanbaogaodezhenshixingshi,yinggaidaoguojiaquanweibumenjinxingzixunheyanzheng。

huanbaoxuyaodaijia,congmuqianlaikan,huanbaochanpindejiagewangwangbitongleifeihuanbaochanpinpiangao。

yinci,ruguoyaozhuiqiuhuanbao,xiaofeizhejiuyaofuchugenggaodejingjidaijia。xianzai,xuduoxiaofeizhezaizhuangxiushixiguanxiancanzhaoshurenjiadezhuangxiu,kanxiaoguoxuejingyan,ranhouquzhuangshichengzhaozhuangxiugongsishejifangan。youyuduoweimianfeisheji,dakeduoduokeshan,yiqixuanzejijiatongshiliangfangsheji,ranhouquzhangbuduanchugedagaifangan,zuihouyoujiagejuedingyounajialaizhuangxiu。jiandandishuo,jiushikuanshi+jiagedezuhe,jiageyinsuzaizheiliqijuedingxingzuoyong。qishi,jiatingzhuangxiugong、liaodoushimahubudede,jibianyizhiliangyouhao,haihuanbaodejiatingzhuangxiuzhinengshixiaofeizhedeyixiangqingyuan。tebieshijiazhuangzhongdehuanbao,budanyaoqiuzhucaihao,jiushijiao、nizidengxiweimojieyeyaotebieliuyi。

4.2.1.2 kexuesheji、kexueshigong

zaiquedingshejifanganshi,yaozhuyigezhongjianzhuzhuangshicailiaodehelidapei、fangwukongjianchengzailiangdejisuanheshineitongfengliangdejisuandeng。zaishigongshi,yaoxuanzefuheshineihuanjingyaoqiuerqiebuhuizaochengshineihuanjingwurandeshigonggongyi。biru,zaishimudibanhefuhedibanxiapuzhuangrenzaoban,huozhezaiqiangmianchulishicaiqulebuhelidegongyideng,zheixiedouhuidaozhihuanjingwuran。

yaozuodaokexuesheji,shouxianyaotigaoshejiduiwudezhengtisuzhi,zheishizuiguanjiande,yinweitamenshijiazhuangshejizhongdezhuti,tamenshejishuipingdegaodihuizhijieyingxiangdaojiatingzhuangxiudezhengtibujuhefengge,tamendeshejiyehuiyingxiangdaozhengtidezhuangxiufeiyongheshineidehuanjingzhiliang。

jianliyizhigaosuzhideshigongduiwuyeshizhuangshixingyexuyaopoqiejiejuedewenti,tamenshizaizhenggezhuangxiuguochengzhongdediyixianchang,tamenshigongzhiliangdehaohuaihuifanyingchushejishideshejishuiping。nengfouzuidachengdudefanyingchushejishideshejilinianshiduitamenshigongshuipingdezuihaodejianyan。

4.2.1.3 kexuejiance

jiatingzhuangxiuchuxianhuanjingwuran,zuizhijiedefanyingjiushishentibushi:

1.qichuangzonghezheng:qichuangshigandaobiemen、exin,shenzhitouyunmuxuan。

2.xindongguosuzonghezheng:xinmaijiajuhoujialiqiweinanwen,shirennanyijieshou,changchangxintiaojiakuai,bingyinfashentijibing。

3.leiyanminzonghezheng:suiranbaoxiyan,yehenshaojiechuxiyanhuanjing,danshijingchanggandaosangzibushufu,youyiwugan,huxibuchang。

4.youtongzonghezheng:jialixiaohaikesou,erqielikaizheigehuanjinghou,zhengzhuangjiuyoumingxianbianhuahehaozhuan。

5.qunfaxingpifubingzonghezheng;jiarenchangyoupifuguomindengjibing,erqieshiqunfaxingde。

6.jiatingqunfajibingzonghezheng:jiarengongyouyizhongjibing,erqielikaizheigehuanjinghou,zhengzhuangjiuhuimingxianbianhuahehaozhuan。

7.buyunzonghezheng:xinhunfufuchangshijianbuhuaiyun,chabuchuyuanyin。

8.taierjixingzonghezheng:yunfuzaizhengchanghuaiyunqingkuangxiafaxiantaierjixing。

9.zhiwukuweizonghezheng:xinbanjiahuoxinzhuangxiuhou,shineizhiwubuyichenghuo,yezirongyifahuang、kuwei,jishishishengminglijiaoqiangdeyenanyizhengchangshengzhang。

10.chongwusiwangzonghezheng:xinbanjiahou,jiayangdechongwumao、goushenzhiredaiyumomingqimiaodisidiao。

chuxianyishangqingkuangshi,shuomingmiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaijialidehuanjingkenengyijingbuanquanle,zheishihoumiaosufeitingappguanfangxiazaijiuyinggaizhaodaoyouguanhuanjingjiancebumenjinxingzixunhejiancele。

lingwai,youxiejiatingzhuangxiuwanganjueqiweibudajiumeiyouwentile,qishiburan。yuanyinyousan,yishibutongjijieyouhaiwuzhideshifangliangbutong,dongjijiuxiangyingdiyixie。ershiyoudeshineiyouhaiqitibirueryanghuatan、yiyanghuatan、benxiwuhefangshexingwuzhishirenganjuebudaode。sanshiyouyuyouhaiwuzhiduirenmenhuxixitongdeciji,rendexiujueqiguanxiangyingchidun。

yishangsuoshu,dechuyigejielun:xinfangzhuangxiuhoubuyaojiyuruzhu,yinggaizhaozhengguideshineihuanjingjiancebumenjinxingjiancexian。

muqian,jiazhuangwuranjianceyewudegongsihenduo,danshifoudoushizhenzhengjubeizizhideni?dabufenjuminhulvelezheiyidian。renweizhiyaoshijiancegongsijiujuyoujianceshuiping。zhiyounadao《chanpinjianyanjigoujiliangrenzheng》zhengshudedanwei,caiyouzigexiangyonghuchujujiazhuangwuranjianceshuju,bunengyikaoquefaxingyeguanli、wuzizhide“youjidui”weixinjujinxingjiance。yinci,xiaofeizhezaixuanzejiazhuangkongqihuanjingceliangjigoushi,bixuyaoqiujiancejigouchujudebaogaoyaohanyouqizizhi,yejiushiguojiajishujiandujuhuoshengjijishujiandujudejiliangrenzhengxiangmuzizhizhengshu。ciwai,xiaofeizhekanxianchangjianceshihaiyinggaizhuyigaijiancejigoushifouyongyoujishuzhibiaomanzuguojiabiaozhunyaoqiudejianceyiqi,shifouanguojiabiaozhunjinxingjiance。

kongqizhiliangzhibiaoliebiao:

表4-1 民用建筑工程室内环境污染物浓度限量(GB 50325-2001)

污染物 Ⅰ类民用建筑工程 Ⅱ类民用建筑工程 氡/(Bq/m3) ≤200 ≤400 游离甲醛/(mg/m3) ≤0.08 ≤0.12 苯/(mg/m3) ≤0.09 ≤0.09 氨/(mg/m3) ≤0.2 ≤0.5 TVOC/(mg/m3) ≤0.5 ≤0.6

表4-2室内空气环境污染物浓度限量(GB/T 18883-2002)

  4.2.1.4 kexueruzhu

zhuangxiuhoudejushibuyilijiqianru,yingdangyouyidingshijianrangcailiaozhongdeyouhaiqitichongfensanfa,tongshibaochishineikongqiliutong,youliyuyouhaiqitidepaichu,jinliangbuyaozaitongfengbuhaodexinzhuangxiufangjianliguoye。henduorenyouzheizhongshuofa,fangwuzhuangxiuhao“liang”yueyujiuzugoule,qishizheizhongguandianyouyidingdeweihaixing。youguanzhuanjiazhichu,zhuangxiuhouzuihaonengkongzhitongfengbannianzuoyoudeshijian,zuiduanbunengshaoyulianggeyue。yinweiwulunshijiaquan、ben,haishifangshexingqitidong,zhiyaoxinjubaochitongfeng,jiunengdedaohenhaodesanfa,nengshiqinongduxunsujiangdi。ciwai,jiaquandehuifashouwenduyingxiang,wenduyuegaohuifayuekuai,zhuangxiuhou,jinliangbikaixiatianruzhu。

kongzhibannianhouzairuzhu,yinduozhongyuanyinyibanrenzuobudao。neime,youzhenduixingdiduoyanghuazhongcao,ruguibeizhu、tianzhukui、xianrenzhangdeng,youxishoujiaquan、ben,fenjieeryanghuatanshifangyangqidigongneng。

4.2.2.治理

faxianzijidexinjuyoulehuanjingwuran,jiuyaozhili。

qiaoquyoududecailiao,rengdiaochaobiaodejiaju,kongpaxuduorenshishebudede。congzheigejiaodulaishuo,wuranzhiliqueshiwangyangbulaodezuihaobanfa。julejie,muqianshichangshangwuranzhilifangfazhuyaoyouzheijizhong:guangchumei、chouyang、gaoyadianfulizi、tandeng。


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